Prepared by Luke Magri (3820304), Aroma Rattanong (3784767) & Mano Kuriakose (3899650)
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim in 2005. The three young men (all in their mid-thirties) met while working within the PayPal division of eBay. The idea of YouTube was an engine for easy video sharing. The company is based in California and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 technology.
February 15, 2005 – Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim registered http://www.youtube.com
April 23, 2005 – Me at the Zoo was the first video ever uploaded on YouTube by Jawed Karim. The video was 19 seconds long and was shot at the San Diego zoo. The video has received more than 8 million views.
October 21, 2005 – Nike was the first major company to promote on YouTube. Brazilian soccer player Ronaldinho dancing the samba with a ball received nearly 2 million views. Ronaldinho: Dance with the ball
October 9, 2006 – Google buys YouTube for $1.65 billion.
July 23, 2007 – YouTube and CNN host their first presidential debate, featuring citizen-submitted video questions. In the 2008 election cycle, 7 of the 16 presidential candidates announced their campaigns via YouTube.
October 12, 2009 – YouTube hosts 1 billion videos but remains unprofitable. In 2009 analysts estimated YouTube made $240 million in revenue but spent more than $700 million storing and serving videos.
March 2010 – YouTube video page redesign launched.
September 2012 – Baby by Justin Bieber is the most viewed video ever on YouTube with over 777 million views. Top 10 YouTube Videos of All Time
What You Can Find On YouTube
YouTube has opened up opportunities for ordinary people to take their content and share it with the world. YouTube showcases all forms of self-produced videos. Examples of such videos include:
DIY videos. These include tutorials such as makeup application, building objects, cooking and any other basic ‘how to’ videos. A popular up-loader of such DIY videos is a woman named Michelle Phan who uploads video of makeup tutorials from simple everyday makeup to costume makeup. She currently has over 2 million subscribers and over 643 million views of her videos overall.
Music videos are uploaded by individuals who want to showcase their talent. A handful of these performers have been lucky enough to score recording contracts. Esmee Denters was just an ordinary teenager uploading song covers on YouTube, where she was discovered and now has a record deal.
Video blogs are another type of video posted on YouTube. These video blogs usually show the bloggers everyday lives and issues and is basically the same content you see on an ordinary blog page viewed online but with video blogging it gives the audience a more intimate connection with the blogger. Jenna Marbles is one of the most popular bloggers on YouTube, attracting more than 4 million subscribers and more than 700 million views of her videos overall. Her videos are a comical view on everyday issues.
Entertainment videos such as parodies are huge on YouTube. There are many videos making fun of celebrities or parodies of music videos are commonly uploaded on YouTube providing hours of comical entertainment. Barely Political is a group of people who are one of the most popular comical groups on YouTube. They mock celebrities from political figures to music artists. They have more than 2 million subscribers and over 1 billion views on their videos overall.
YouTube as a Participatory Culture
YouTube offers a space for social networking, to create media and connect with the public. YouTube is a sociotechnical platform where people can go to “hang out”, interact and learn. With the combination of media production and distribution, social networking plays a big part in YouTube as it allows individuals to share thoughts and voice opinions. Each person’s contributing by leaving a comment on the videos or responding back to a video with a video response. Feedback and interactions are ways for the up-loader to produce more videos to circulate by what the public wants to watch. As YouTube is a communal place, it gives the individual a sense of belonging and identity by feeling socially connected to peers within the community. The article ‘There’s no ‘I’ in YouTube: Social Media, Networked Identity and Art Education’ in the International Journal of Education through Art, discusses the way people communicate using social media especially in the forms mentioned above.
What Can Be Uploaded on YouTube
YouTube takes copyright seriously and keeps a close eye on what gets uploaded to the site. YouTube follows the Digital Millennium Compliance Act which is an American legislation protecting copyright holders from technology that makes pirating easy. YouTube posts warnings to the users who posts copyrighted material and with a vast amount of videos uploaded daily, they depend on the loyalty of the viewers to notify the site if they feel an individual has violated the the Act. Music videos, clips from television shows and movies are the types of videos that are generally being uploaded without copyright approval and are the ones taken down the most due to this violation. The article YouTube: The Evolution of Media? further explains this matter and some of the issues that have risen from this matter.
Geographic & Demographic Aspects
The demographic aspect of the adoption of YouTube shows some significant differences in accessing of YouTube by different age groups in Australia. The ACMA (Australian Communications Media Authority) ran an online survey in 2011, entitled Digital Australians. This provided an insight into the contrasting use of online media between the various age groups in Australia. The greatest contrast was between young adults (in the 18-29 range) and older adults (aged 55 and over) it was discovered that the younger group were more than twice as likely as the older group to have accessed online video content from sites such as YouTube.
Further contrasts of YouTube usage can be seen in recent (2011) Nielsen polling of YouTube use in the USA, with a significantly greater number of adult women (34.7 million), than men accessing YouTube. YouTube is more popular with younger viewers in the USA. In contrast, there was only limited difference between age groups for some other media activities, such as accessing news websites. Therefore, it appears that general internet accessing of news, T.V or radio websites is not significantly different between older and younger age groups. This contrasts strongly with difference between the older and younger age groups in the use of YouTube.
According to the report issued by (Sysomos Inc,2010). on the analysis of 2.5 million different YouTube videos, there are significant demographic differences in the categories of YouTube videos accessed by viewers. Older viewers (aged 35 and above) had the highest levels of interest in news and politics, contrasting with only limited interest from users aged 13-19. Contrastingly, music videos were significantly more popular with younger viewers than they were with older viewers.
In discussing the geographic aspects of the adoption of YouTube, it is worth remarking that in 2011 70% of YouTube postings and viewings occurred outside of the USA, and that YouTube had more than one trillion views. This indicates that YouTube has made a huge impact on the populations of a range of countries over a wide geographic area. Another point worth discussing is that YouTube is frequently accessed from mobile devices, particularly by younger people. This is a significant development in the discussion of the geographic aspects of the adoption of YouTube, in that users are increasingly accessing it through geographic locations that are unfixed.
Some YouTube videos gain widespread popularity across nations, and sometimes gain popularity across a range of countries. This is frequently dependant on viewers from different countries sharing language and cultural understandings. However, Broderson, Scellato and Wattenhofer claim that for at least 50% of videos posted up to 70% of viewers usually come from a single area. This static indicates that the geographic reach of a large proportion of YouTube videos is limited. This may be due to the fact that many videos may have their relevance restricted to web users from a small geographic locality.
Another important feature of the geographic aspects of YouTube is that some areas of the world are far more likely to display a preference for YouTube videos featuring local content than other areas. In addition YouTube is frequently associated with social sharing, e.g. people referring or showing YouTube videos to friends in social networking sites. Broderson, Scellato and Wattenhofer (Broderson, Scellato and Wattenhofer, 2012) also suggest that social sharing on social networks is more likely to occur between users who live close to each other rather than far away.
How To Use YouTube
Below is an instructional video we have prepared for this report on how to utilise YouTube’s features and how to navigate around the website. The website goes through the following points:
- Using the Home Page
- Searching For Videos
- Liking/Disliking Videos
- Adding to your Favorites or a Custom Playlist
- Commenting on Videos
- Liking/Disliking Comments
- Video Responses
- Sharing Videos on Facebook/Twitter
- Related Videos
- Uploading a Video
- Utilizing Video Title, Description and Tags for better search results
YouTube vs Other Social Media Webites
In a day and age where social media is so extremely important, YouTube has a very important place in current social culture. YouTube is one of the first websites people will access to find out more about a particular thing that has happened. Everyone is always after video footage so they have proof something actually happened and they love being able to relive moments over and over again. YouTube differs from other social media websites in various ways. Firstly, YouTube is a place where an unknown talent can be ‘discovered’. This type of thing would not happen on websites such as Facebook (where you connect with friends) and Twitter (where you follow your friends and celebrities). We only have to look to a recent example on how someone can go from a zero to a hero in a short amount of time all through YouTube. A few weeks ago nobody had ever heard of a Korean Pop Star named PSY, today his music video for the insanely catchy ‘Gangnam Style’ with it’s daggy dance moves has over 350 million views and counting and he has been appearing on various television shows and is now a huge star. PSY would not have been able to gain this sort of exposure if it wasn’t for YouTube. However, you must also consider that it wasn’t sure for millions of people sharing his video on other social media websites like Facebook and Twitter, then he would be not be so successful. Social Media works together as a whole when something goes ‘viral’. YouTube also differs from other social media websites as it not necessarily a place where you can connect with friends compared to Facebook and Twitter. Those websites allow for direct communication and YouTube is more catered towards communicating to the masses.